USDA HANDBOOK addresses Farmers as Uneducated


Points For Opposing Animal ID

Export Myths and Fairytales

NASS Survey Information

ARAPA Statement to the Senate Ag Committee

Codex Alimentarius


Sound Science Killing Us

What Can I Do?


What are the vets saying?


Congressmen Speak Out

International Entanglements

What is COOL?

Mad Cow Madness




Important Links


Photos From Conway Meeting



Corporate Hostile Takeover

What About The Amish?


How do Packers fit in?

The Real Reason for Animal ID


Endangered Property Rights

Organic & Grassfed Growers Also Affected

DATABASES - How Safe Are They?

Wake Up, Farmers!



Technology Behind NAIS


NIAA Conference Reports

Pushing Us Off Our Farms

Ag Lawyer Responds to the NAIS



Uncle Sam Wants YOUR Animals!



What is REAL ID?


Animal ID Problems in Other Countries

Farm Bureau Connection

NAIS Threatens Rare Breeds

RFID Tags - Good, Bad & Ugly


Retired Army Colonel Rebuts NAIS

Equine Species Working Group Contacts



SCRAPIE ID for Goats/Sheep & the NAIS

NAIS ID Terminology



The Plan is AGENDA 21

4-H, FFA Targeted at Fairs


Leon's Story - Chipped Dog Died From Cancer


Protection From Terrorist Livestock



TRUTH about Foot & Mouth Vaccines






Bird Flu Fowl Play






“Giant, corporate-owned factory farms are polluting our air and water, and are displacing local family farms."

October 24, 2007

Journal of the American Medical Association Commends Book That Implicates
Factory Farming In Emerging Human Diseases

This week's issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association describes
as "timely" and "incisive" the book Bird Flu: A Virus of Our Own Hatching, which
implicates factory farming as a primary cause of the emergence of the H5N1 bird
flu virus threat.

The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) welcomes the favorable review by
this prestigious journal. Such recognition serves to further the important
discussion of how factory farming—specifically poultry production—may have
created conditions ripe for a severe influenza pandemic, which the U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention estimate could cause millions of American
deaths. Bird Flu: A Virus of Our Own Hatching is written by Michael Greger,
M.D., director of public health and animal agriculture for The HSUS.

The JAMA review points out that "[t]he human tragedy and economic upheaval would
be unprecedented" and that Dr. Greger "argues convincingly that the right
environment for a virus such as H5N1 to thrive now exists."

"Confining tens of thousands of birds in massive sheds, standing and lying in
their own waste, is a breeding ground for both animal and animal-to-human
diseases. With avian influenza strains threatening to trigger a human pandemic,
it's not worth risking millions of human lives for the sake of cheaper chicken,"
stated Dr. Greger.

The Journal of the American Medical Association is the world's most
widely-circulated medical journal.

The review concludes, "The book is timely, well-researched, and particularly
incisive on farming methods worldwide, especially those for poultry."


The possibility of an influenza pandemic triggered by a bird flu virus such as
H5N1 is considered the greatest threat to global public heath. The strain has
killed approximately 200 people and 200 million birds since its emergence a
decade ago.
Worldwide, 55 billion chickens are reared every year. Spread wing to wing, the
number of chickens killed every day would wrap more than twice around the
world's equator.

August 2007—The World Health Organization's annual World Health Report notes
that new infectious diseases are now emerging at a rate unprecedented in the
history of medicine—in part because of intensive poultry production.
June 2007—A Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations report
suggests that the industrialization of animal agriculture in recent decades is
increasing public health risks on a global scale.
February 2007—A report on the potential role of factory farming in human
infectious disease epidemics is published in Environmental Health Perspectives.
November 2003—The American Public Health Association passes a "Precautionary
Moratorium on New Concentrated Animal Feed Operations" that urges all federal,
state, and local authorities to impose an immediate moratorium on the building
of new factory farms out of concern for the health of workers and local
communities, given the land, air, and water pollution associated with these
industrial facilities.

Last Revised: 08/25/06

Union of Concerned Scientists
Citizens and Scientists for Environmental Solutions


Industrial Agriculture
The Reality of Feed at Animal Factories

When many Americans think of farm animals, they picture cattle munching grass on rolling pastures, chickens pecking on the ground outside of picturesque red barns, and pigs gobbling down food at the trough.

Over the last 50 years, the way food animals are raised and fed has changed dramatically—to the detriment of both animals and humans. Many people are surprised to find that most of the food animals in the United States are no longer raised on farms at all. Instead they come from crowded animal factories, also known as large confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

Just like other factories, animal factories are constantly searching for ways to shave their costs. To save money, they've redefined what constitutes animal feed, with little consideration of what is best for the animals or for human health. As a result, many of the ingredients used in feed these days are not the kind of food the animals are designed by nature to eat.

Just take a look at what's being fed to the animals you eat.

Are these ingredients legal? Unfortunately, yes. Nevertheless, some raise human health concerns. Others just indicate the low standards for animal feeds. But all are symptoms of a system that has lost sight of the appropriate way to raise food animals.

Same Species Meat, Diseased Animals, and Feathers, Hair, Skin, and Blood

The advent of "mad cow" disease (also known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE) raised international concern about the safety of feeding rendered[1] cattle to cattle. Since the discovery of mad cow disease in the United States, the federal government has taken some action to restrict the parts of cattle that can be fed back to cattle.

However, most animals are still allowed to eat meat from their own species. Pig carcasses can be rendered and fed back to pigs, chicken carcasses can be rendered and fed back to chickens, and turkey carcasses can be rendered and fed back to turkeys. Even cattle can still be fed cow blood and some other cow parts.

Under current law, pigs, chickens, and turkeys that have been fed rendered cattle can be rendered and fed back to cattle—a loophole that may allow mad cow agents to infect healthy cattle.

Animal feed legally can contain rendered road kill, dead horses, and euthanized cats and dogs.

Rendered feathers, hair, skin, hooves, blood, and intestines can also be found in feed, often under catch-all categories like "animal protein products."

Manure and Other Animal Waste

Feed for any food animal can contain cattle manure, swine waste, and poultry litter. This waste may contain drugs such as antibiotics and hormones that have passed unchanged through the animals' bodies. 

The poultry litter that is fed to cattle contains rendered cattle parts in the form of digested poultry feed and spilled poultry feed. This is another loophole that may allow mad cow agents to infect healthy cattle.

Animal waste used for feed is also allowed to contain dirt, rocks, sand, wood, and other such contaminants. 


Many animals need roughage to move food through their digestive systems. But instead of using plant-based roughage, animal factories often turn to pellets made from plastics to compensate for the lack of natural fiber in the factory feed.

Drugs and Chemicals

Animals raised in humane conditions with appropriate space and food rarely require medical treatment. But animals at animal factories often receive antibiotics to promote faster growth and to compensate for crowded, stressful, and unsanitary living conditions. An estimated 13.5 million pounds of antibiotics—the same classes of antibiotics used in human medicine—are routinely added to animal feed or water. This routine, nontherapeutic use of antibiotics speeds the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can infect humans as well as animals. Antibiotic resistance is a pressing public health problem that costs the U.S. economy billions of dollars each year.

Some of the antimicrobials used to control parasites and promote growth in poultry contain arsenic, a known human carcinogen. Arsenic can be found in meat or can contaminate human water supplies through runoff from factory farms.

Unhealthy Amounts of Grains

One last surprise. While grain may sound like a healthful food, the excessive quantities fed to some animals are not. This is especially true for cattle, which are natural grass eaters. Their digestive systems are not designed to handle the large amounts of corn they receive at feedlots. As a result of this corn-rich diet, feedlot cattle can suffer significant health problems, including excessively acidic digestive systems and liver abscesses. Grain-induced health problems, in turn, ramp up the need for drugs.

Want to Change What Animals are Fed?

The rise in animal factories over the last 50 years has led to a system that is out of control.  Mad cow disease, increased liver abscesses, and the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are just some examples of the damage that comes from unwise and often inhumane approaches to raising food animals.

As a consumer armed with information, you have the power to promote a modern approach to raising animals that is both productive and healthful. You can help to effect change by supporting systems and producers that feed animals the food they were meant to eat.  

You can:

  • Avoid factory farmed animal products altogether by choosing plant-based foods.
  • Choose grass-fed and grass-finished beef and dairy products and pasture-raised pork, poultry, and egg products.
  • Select certified organic meats, eggs, and dairy and those clearly labeled as using only vegetarian animal feed.
  • Purchase meats, eggs, and dairy products from local farmers on the farm, at farmers markets, or by buying a share from a local farmer as part of a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program.

For More Information

For a review of animal feed ingredients, see The Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future's 2006 publication, Feed for Food Producing Animals: A Resource on Ingredients, the Industry, and Regulation.

Visit the Eat Well Guide to learn how you can locate sustainably produced meats, eggs, and dairy products.

Visit the American Grassfed Association's list of producers to locate producers of grass-fed and grass-finished animal products.

Click here for a guide to Community Supported Agriculture.

Click here to find a farmers market near you.

Click here to learn more about the Union of Concerned Scientists' work on sustainable agriculture.

[1] Rendering is an industrial process in which animal carcasses, parts, and other wastes are ground up, heated, and further processed to create a variety of products,  including animal feed ingredients. Meat and bone meal, blood meal, and feather meal are some examples of rendered products. 


U.N. Warns Confinement Production Could Lead to Higher Risks of Diseases

ROME (AP) — United Nation agriculture officials warned Monday that the risk of diseases being transferred from animals to humans may increase as a result of livestock practices that mean animals are too highly concentrated in confined spaces.

The practices are the result of increasing demand for meat and poultry, which has accelerated industrial production, the Rome-based Food and Agriculture Organization said.

"There is no doubt that the world has to depend upon some of the technologies of intensive animal food production systems," said FAO livestock policy expert Joachim Otte. "But excessive concentration of animals in large-scale industrial production units should be avoided and adequate investments should be made in heightened biosecurity and improved disease monitoring to safeguard public health," he said in a statement.

Globally, pig and poultry production are the fastest-growing sectors, with annual production growth rates up to 4 percent over the past decade. As a result, most chickens and turkeys in industrialized countries are now raised in facilities with 15,000 to 50,000 birds. Meanwhile, industrial pig and poultry production relies on a significant movement of live animals, which raises the risk of transferring diseases.

Besides the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, which has killed 200 people worldwide, according to the World Health Organization, and remains a major global concern, the agency said that the circulation of other influenza viruses in poultry and swine should also be closely monitored internationally. Some flu viruses are now fairly widespread in commercial poultry and to a lesser extent in pigs and could also lead to emergence of a human influenza pandemic, the FAO warned.

Among the agency's recommendations were that production sites should not be built close to human settlement or wild bird populations, and that farms should be regularly cleaned and disinfected.



New viral strain taking toll on U.S. pork industry  
By Tom Johnston on 3/5/2007 for       
Smithfield, Va.-based Smithfield Foods says a new strain of the swine disease circovirus has cut into its profits, an example of the challenge the disease poses to the entire U.S. pork industry.

As the industry gears up for battle with porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), which kills hogs in the late finishing stage of production (See on, Jan. 8, 2007), Smithfield indicated in news reports that the number of hogs it marketed in the United States decreased 8 percent in the latest quarter from a year earlier due to the virus.

New vaccines have helped, though they are in short supply, Smithfield said.

Pam Zaabel, director of swine health information and research for the National Pork Board, told reporters that the new strain kills more hogs than its cousin, sometimes claiming between 5 percent and 50 percent of a given herd.

"The belief is that PCV2 has mutated, and this strain causes more severe clinical signs than the previous strain," she said.

NPB is spending more money for research on PCVAD, and is passing out a pamphlet explaining the virus and how to address it.



by F. William Engdahl
November 27, 2005 

Look to the giant ‘chicken jails’ or chicken factory farms around the world as a more likely source for emerging Bird Flu viruses, not to small peasant chicken farmers, and we might be closer to the truth

Clouds can have ‘silver linings’ the adage goes, and Bird Flu seems to be no exception. While much of the world trembles in panic and fear over an as-yet-non-existent human-to-human mutation of the Avian Flu or H5N1 virus, and while most worry what to do to protect themselves and their families, certain people are doing quite nicely in the situation.

Donald Rumsfeld and other major stock holders of Gilead Sciences or Roche Inc., the marketers of the much-hyped Tamiflu (see previous articles, ‘Is Tamiflu another Pentagon Hoax? ;‘Bird Flu: A Corporate Bonanza for the Biotech Industry’) are reaping nice gains, as sales of the medication are booming thanks to promotion by the Bush and Blair governments.

Agribusiness companies stand to reap huge gains in the event that scientists at Cambridge University and elsewhere are able to replace the entire world chicken population with genetically-engineered chicks allegedly resistant to H5N1 virus.

Little-noticed beneficiaries of the current Avian Flu scare, however, are the giant agribusiness chicken producers based in the United States, who claim ‘their’ chickens are safe. Their sales are booming and all indications are that Avian Flu, paradoxically, has come like a Godsend to their corporate balance sheets. Are they also responsible for breeding unsanitary conditions and exporting the product worldwide causing disease, illness and even deaths?

On October 23, 2005, Dr. Margaret Chan, Representative of the WHO Director-General for Pandemic Influenza, the key person responsible for global oversight of the threat from the H5N1 strain of Bird Flu, told Newsweek magazine, ‘the risk to humans in Europe, the risk to human health is very low in Europe.’

Chan came to her senior post at WHO from Hong Kong, where she was responsible for the public health response to the SARS epidemic in 2003-4. She told Newsweek, ‘our alert is at Phase III, and that has not changed recently. Phase VI is the highest, when there's a pandemic…We do not want to see complacency, but we also do not want to see people getting alarmed. At this point, avian influenza is a bird disease.’ 1

That statement coming from the international public official most directly responsible, gives little ground to justify the mood of panic and the hoarding of dubious medications such as Tamiflu. Who else gains from the current panic over a potential human Avian Flu pandemic?

At this point a close look at the world poultry business is highly enlightening.

Factory Chicken Farms

Curiously enough, it is not the huge, unsanitary, overcrowded factory chicken farms of the global agri-giants which are being scrutinized as a possible incubator or source of H5N1 or other diseases. Rather, the target is the small chicken farmers in especially Asia, with at most perhaps 10 to 20 chickens, who stand to lose big-time in the current Bird Flu hysteria.

The major chicken factories such as TYSON FOODS, Perdue Farms, CON-AGRA POULTRY are making a propaganda campaign that, unlike in Asia where chickens are free to roam in the open, that their chickens are ‘safer’ because they are raised in closed facilities. A closer look inside those facilities is useful.

Over the past three decades, American agriculture has been transformed so as to be almost unrecognizable. It is no longer dominated by small, carefully-run family farms producing some wheat, maybe corn, dairy and perhaps eggs and poultry fed and raised in a free-running farm area.

Today, thanks to a project launched in the late 1950’s by two Harvard Business School professors--Ray Goldberg and John Davis--production of food has become a concentrated, vertically integrated multinational business, which they named agribusiness. The criterion is no longer human food safety or quality. It is corporate profit. Nutrition has become a pure cost-benefit calculation of shareholder value, just as trading in stocks in a car company might be.

The industrialization of chicken-raising and slaughtering in the USA, which is known as ‘factory farming’ is a process whose inner workings are unknown to most people. Better it remained so some say. Were we to know, we likely would never again eat a Chicken McNugget or a KFC chicken dinner, both of which are supplied, by the way, by TYSON.

Today, five giant multinational agribusiness companies dominate the production and processing of chicken meat in the United States, and, as things seem to be going, especially were the world to be looney enough to adopt genetically modified chickens supposedly resistant to Avian Flu virus, these five companies are about to dominate world chicken supply.

According to a trade source, WATT Poultry USA, as of 2003 five companies held overwhelming domination of the US poultry production, all of them vertically integrated. US regulators and Congressmen seem to have forgotten the tough laws against vertical integration in the meatpacking and poultry industry following widespread scandals and the expose during the 1920’s, The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair, exposing the health and human abuse inside the Chicago meatpacking industry.

The five companies are TYSON FOODS, far the largest in the world; GoldKist Inc; Pilgrim’s Pride; CON-AGRA Poultry; and Perdue Farms. Together, the five account for well over 370 million pounds per week of ready-to-cook chicken, some 56% of all ready-to-eat poultry produced in the USA. That is a level of concentration far in excess of anything in the 1920’s.

Alone, TYSON FOODS processes 155 million pounds of chicken a week, almost three times its nearest rival, GoldKist. TYSON is big business, with over $26 billion a year in revenue. During the latest Bird Flu scare, for the Quarter ending September 30, TYSON FOODS’ earnings rose an eye-popping 49%, and, despite a 10% fall in chicken sales, its profit in chickens grew a robust 40%. The key, the company said, was measures it took to ‘boost productivity.’ 2

Boosting productivity for TYSON and the other chicken giants clearly means one thing: speedup of the production line, further slashing labor costs, and reducing safety measures in their slaughtering and packing plants.

Tough Men and Tender Chickens?

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) released a report in 2004 on the economic impact to date of Avian or Bird Flu.3 It noted that the main impact of the panic which has grown globally since around 2003, has been economic loss, not human deaths. ‘The impact of countries banning both Thai and Chinese poultry exports,’ the FAO report noted, ‘are leading to higher international poultry prices and increasing demand for poultry meat from other major suppliers, such as the United States…’

Increasing Asian demand for imported chicken products from the United States today, however, has a special significance. It means three to four giant factory farm operations are opening a potentially huge new market for chicken products in Asia.

Asia today is home to seven billion chickens, fully 40% of the world total. US chicken giants like TYSON FOODSCON-AGRA and Perdue Farms have literally been drooling at the prospect of breaking into the vast market in Asia, Japan and China for several years. Bird Flu is giving them that chance and more.

Japan imports some 70% of all chicken its population consumes. The Bird Flu scare resulted in a Japanese ban on chicken imports from Thailand and China. The benefactors have been USA and Brazil chicken exporters according to the FAO. And that means, above all, TYSON FOODS, Perdue, CON-AGRA.

One of the better known radio ads in the United States in recent years had the motto, ‘It takes a tough man to make a tender chicken…’ It was the popular slogan of the late Frank Perdue of Perdue Farms, one of the world’s top five giant chicken producers. The ‘tough man’ part of Perdue Farms is accurate. The company, which boasts of being fully integrated from ‘egg to supermarket meat case,’ had $2.8 billion in sales in 2004 and pushes 48 million pounds of chicken parts on the world consumer weekly, in 40 countries. Perdue, like all its chicken factory colleagues, has been fined by the US Government for safety and health violations in its chicken processing plants and for efforts to bust trade union organizing in its plants.

TYSON FOODS, based in Bill Clinton’s home state of Arkansas, enjoyed intimate ties to the Clinton Administration during the 1990’s. Some would say too intimate. It was TYSON General Counsel, James Blair, who set up a sweetheart deal to get Hillary Clinton an education in sophisticated and highly risky cattle futures, turning her $1,000 investment into a quick $100,000 windfall. Soon after helping Hillary, TYSON FOODS found a friend in the new Clinton Secretary of Agriculture, Mike Espy. A US Judge found that TYSON had arranged airplane rides, professional football tickets and other gifts to Espy. TYSON agreed to pay a $6 million fine for ‘attempting’ to bribe a Federal official.

TYSON is also adept at taking over rivals. In 1997, after repeatedly failing in a takeover bid, TYSON bought rival poultry producer Hudson Foods. And they bought it at a steeply-discounted price.

Hudson Foods was suddenly hit with an e coli bacteria scandal. US Government regulators descended on the company, even sending in a so-called ‘SWAT team’ to shut down operations. Press carried horror stories about the company. Within hours, the company's stock value plummeted. Within weeks, rival TYSON FOODS bought Hudson Foods. TYSON CEO Don Tyson’s Arkansas friend Bill Clinton was President of the United States, theoretically responsible for deployment of such operations as Federal Swat Teams to shut down companies. TYSON FOODS was able to buy Hudson Foods only after the small company had been brought to its knees, at least in part through a public health scare and some government brute force. No one ever proved that TYSON and the Clinton Administration were in cahoots in the Hudson Foods e coli scare, with its unprecedented Government raid. Yet no one ever proved the opposite either. TYSON had swallowed another rival, anaconda-style.

TYSON FOODS today has re-branded itself and now boasts of being ‘the world’s largest protein producer,’ a pitch designed to let it benefit from the current ‘high-protein/low carbohydrate’ Dr. Atkins diet fad. Benefit it has, as US chicken consumption is up 24% since 1995. But that evidently isn’t enough for the executives at TYSON FOODS. They have their eyes on the vast China and Asian market for chickens as we will later see. 4

Tyson Chicken Factories: The myth

The following is the company’s own description of its activities from a 1998 filing, indicating the process TYSON FOODS uses to produce 155 million pounds a week of processed chicken:

‘The Company's integrated poultry processes include genetic research, breeding, hatching, rearing, ingredient procurement, feed milling, veterinary and other technical services, and related transportation and delivery services. The Company contracts with independent growers to maintain the Company's flocks of breeder chicks which, when grown, lay the eggs which the Company transfers to its hatcheries and hatch into broiler chicks. Newly hatched broiler chicks are vaccinated and then delivered to independent contract growers who care for and feed the broiler chicks until they reach processing weight… the Company provides growers with feed, vitamins and medication for the broilers, if needed, as well as supervisory and technical services. The broilers are then transported by the Company to its nearby processing plants. The Company processed approximately 6.4 billion pounds of consumer poultry during fiscal 1998…

‘The Company's facilities for processing poultry and for housing live poultry and swine are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws relating to the protection of the environment, including provisions relating to the discharge of materials into the environment, and to the health and safety of its employees… The cost of compliance with such laws and regulations has not had a material adverse effect upon the Company's capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position and it is not anticipated to…As of October 3, 1998, the Company employed approximately 70,500 persons. The Company believes that its relations with its workforce are good.’

The above company declaration is useful in light of the documented reality of life at TYSON FOODS today.

And the Reality…

The conditions of chicken breeding and slaughter documented inside the giant factory chicken farms of TYSON, Perdue, CONAGRA, contrary to their company propaganda, are anything but reassuring to human health. A recent study of working conditions in US meat and poultry slaughterhouses concluded:

‘Health and safety laws and regulations fail to address critical hazards in the meat and poultry industry. Laws and agencies that are supposed to protect workers’ freedom of association are instead manipulated by employers to frustrate worker organizing. Federal laws and policies on immigrant workers are a mass of contradictions and incentives to violate their rights. In sum, the United States is failing to meet its obligations under international human rights standards to protect the human rights of meat and poultry industry workers.’5

A Government Accountability Office (GAO) report to the US Senate, ‘Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry,’ in January 2005, concluded that US meat and poultry processing plants had ‘one of the highest rates of injury and illness of any industry.’ They cited exposure to ‘dangerous chemicals, blood, fecal matter, exacerbated by poor ventilation and often extreme temperatures.’ Workers typically face hazardous conditions, loud noise, must work in narrow confines with sharp tools and dangerous machinery.

In the United States, approximately 8.5 billion ‘broiler’ chickens are killed for food in the US each year. That works out to 23 million chickens every day. According to a recent report by VivaUSA, a non-profit organization investigating conditions in US factory farms, ‘Thanks to genetic selection, feed, and being prevented from moving or getting any exercise on factory farms, chickens now grow to be much larger and to grow more quickly than ever before.’ Broilers today need an average of 6 weeks before slaughter compared with 12 weeks in the 1940’s. And that slaughtered chick has been produced at a high cost.

The use of growth boosters has created major health problems in the huge factory farm concentrations. Because of hormone and vaccine injections to speed growth, muscle growth outstrips bone development and the chickens typically have leg and skeletal disorders that significantly affect their ability to walk. Unable to walk, they must sit in poor-quality litter, creating breast blisters or hock burns. According to one report, ‘The dermatitis seen in such birds is painful in itself but the effects of inability to walk are much more severe.’

Chicken organs are unable to keep up with their hyper growth rates, causing hearts or lungs to fail or malfunction, and creation of excess fluids in their bodies or death. Under special exemptions in US law, chickens are excluded from the protections of the federal Animal Welfare Act. The federal government sets no rules or standards for how these animals should be housed, fed, or treated on farms. 6

The GAO study also confirmed a dramatic change in the US meat and poultry industry since the Reagan Administration first opened the doors to union-busting and vertical integration and concentration in the industry by de facto ignoring enforcement of anti-trust and industrial safety laws such as the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA). In 1980 meat and poultry packing was highly unionized, and well-paid work, with the accompanying union defence of working and safety conditions. The industry was 46% unionized.

A decade later, by 1990, that rate had plunged to 21%, and today is far lower. The wages plunged in parallel, as did the composition of workers in the plants.

Today, according to the GAO, more than 38% of production line workers in the meat and poultry processing industry are foreign born. The GAO gives no data on what percent are illegal immigrants. The largest percent of workers are male, and 42% are Hispanic, and another 20% are black. But far from being a model of fairness in racial minority hiring, the high rate of black and Hispanic workers are precisely because companies find it easiest with the high unemployment rates among those population groups to impose working conditions most workers would refuse.

Encouraged by the Bush Administration’s benign neglect of anti-trust laws and health and safety controls, the meat processing industry has shut down countless unionized plants across the country, reopening new plants often in the same area, typically manned with immigrant, non-union labor at drastically lower wage levels.

Human Rights Watch, an NGO concerned with violations of worker rights, reported on conditions in TYSON FOODS’ Arkansas chicken processing plants:

‘The northwest corner of Arkansas is the center of the poultry industry in Arkansas, the state’s largest private sector employer. The beautiful green hills and valleys belie the environmental degradation of area watersheds polluted by a tsunami of waste from one billion defecating chickens raised and slaughtered each year in Arkansas.

‘Dozens of poultry processing plants are spread among the shopping centers, modest homes and residential apartments of Bentonville, Rogers, Springdale, Fayetteville, Forth Smith and other towns off Interstate I-540 in Northwest Arkansas. The smell of dead chickens permeates the atmosphere. Poultry plants are mostly nondescript, windowless facilities set back from the grid of roads and highways in the area.

‘In the past decade, immigrant workers from Mexico and Central America have supplanted many rural white and African-American workers in Northwest Arkansas poultry plants, a demographic phenomenon characterizing the poultry industry nationwide. Between 1990 and 2000, the foreign-born population of the two largest counties in the area increased more than 600 percent. Nearly all the increase was related to poultry industry employment. In Rogers and Springdale, centers of the poultry processing industry in the area, immigrants are more than 20 percent of the population.

TYSON runs sixty poultry processing plants engaged in slaughtering, dressing, cutting, packaging, de-boning and further processing fifty million chickens per week.’ 7

According to Earthsave International, some 30% of US chicken is tainted with Salmonella and fully 62% with the equally virulent Campylobacter. Time magazine termed raw chicken, ‘one of the most dangerous items in the American home.’ In 1997 contaminated chicken killed at least 1,000 in the United States and poisoned and made sick 80 million others, orders of magnitude more deadly than Avian Flu, but unreported in the media. TYSON, Perdue and the other agribusiness chicken giants have created scientific breeding grounds for disease and pathogens.

TYSON’s ‘corporate citizenship’ leaves something to be desired. The company, like Perdue Farms and the other industry giants, has systematically worked to bust existing unions and drive out any workers who protested dangerous working conditions. In 1993, the National Labor Relations Board found TYSON FOODS guilty of unlawfully directing and controlling a union expulsion at its Dardanelle, Arkansas plant. The company interrogated workers about their union sympathies and illegally promised wage increases, bonuses, and other benefits if workers voted to get rid of the union.

In 1995, TYSON was found guilty of illegally eliminating a union in one acquired company, Holly Farms. TYSON management coercively interrogated workers about their union sympathies, threatened to arrest workers exercising their lawful rights, threatened union supporters with firing if they remained loyal to the union, and fired fifty-one workers for supporting the union. TYSON FOODS CEO, John Tyson, who calls himself a ‘devout Christian,’ talks about creating a ‘faith-friendly company.’ Instead of union members working, he prefers to have what the company calls its, ‘relationship with Team Members (sic) as we operate without a union.’

One TYSON worker described the internal situation:

TYSON always gets rid of workers who protest or who speak up for others. When they jumped from thirty-two chickens a minute to forty-two, a lot of people protested. The company came right out and asked who the leaders were. Then they fired them. They told us, ‘If you don’t like it, there’s the door. There’s another eight hundred applicants waiting to take your job.’ They are the biggest company so what they do goes for the rest.’

The factory chicken farms of TYSON and Perdue and company are also huge consumers of corn and soybeans. In 1999 TYSON alone consumed 6.5 million tons of corn and 2.8 million tons of soybeans. Today, almost all of the corn and soybeans are genetically modified Monsanto crops, a factor whose long-term consequences on human consumption have not been independently tested. TYSON apparently is unconcerned about that as well.

Asia and US Chicken Factories

The concentration of so many animals in centralized, mechanized growing areas or chicken jails across America has led to huge waste and pollution problems. One smaller company, Foster Farms of California recently pled guilty of Clean Water Act violations for illegally discharging 11 million gallons of water polluted with decomposed chicken manure into the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge.

Perdue Farms, the US’ fifth largest poultry producer, recently added a major chicken ‘factory farm’ operation in China.

China is also the dream destination of TYSON FOODS, far and away the largest producer of factory chicken meat in the world today. Well back in April 1997, TYSON FOODS entered an agreement with Kerry Holding Limited, a Hong Kong-based subsidiary of the Kuok Group, to investigate the practicality of locating agribusiness 10 poultry complexes throughout China, each designed to process half a million birds per week, or a total of 5 million chickens each week.

Today, TYSON CEO, Greg Lee, sees China as one of the most promising growth areas for its chicken agribusiness, curious given the negative publicity about Bird Flu cases in China. Lee recently told US media that ‘US poultry housing and growing conditions are different from Asia and are more likely to protect animals from disease…’ In March 2005 John Tyson told a Food Summit in Chicago that TYSON saw its investments in China as laying the ‘foundation for profits in coming years.’

Given the practices of TYSON, Perdue, CONAGRA and the other US chicken factory agribusiness giants, the governments of China, and the rest of the world ought to look long and hard before allowing them license to build their chicken factory farms in China.

The WHO recently described the conditions which are the origin of Bird Flu. In an interview with a China media in early 2004, before the present Washington alarm over Bird Flu pandemic dangers, the Geneva health organization described the conditions under which the Bird Flu virus would spread. The WHO said H5N1 was ‘largely transmitted through bird droppings and uncooked meat.’

When a contaminated chicken makes an excrement the H5N1 strain of avian influenza circulates in the air and is carried by the wind, according to the WHO findings. ‘Piled one on top of the other in cramped cages, the birds easily pass the disease on with their dirty droppings,’ the WHO said, noting that chicken breeders also risked inhaling the bug and got infected easier.

On the other hand, it was virtually impossible to catch bird flu by eating cooked meat that is infected, said WHO spokeswoman Fadela Chaib. ‘The cooking kills the virus,’ Chaib said, citing WHO experts. 8

Chickens piled on top of one another in cramped cages filled with dirty bird feces and poor ventilation is an accurate description of the documented conditions of the factory chicken farms of TYSON FOODS, Perdue Farms and other US chicken agribusiness giants.

Dr Walter Sontag, an Austrian zoologist who has studied the development of the H5N1 virus, and who concluded that the alarm about Bird Flu pandemic is vastly exaggerated, says, ‘A high density (of birds) in a small space with defined food and water availability, and in addition, poor hygiene conditions promote an explosive spread of pathogenic germ cells.’ Sontag goes on to point out that ‘free-walking’ chickens, in contrast to the ‘jailed’ factory farm birds, ‘almost without exception keep a great distance from humans.’ 9

It would be important to know whether any of the cases of Avian Flu documented in China in recent years could be traced either to imports of US chickens from giant producers such as TYSON FOODS or to domestic chicken factory farms of those companies in China or elsewhere in Asia. It is at least clear that a lot more explanation from responsible governments and health officials is due on the true origins and threats of Avian Flu.

Global research Contributing Editor F. William Engdahl is author of ‘A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order,’ London, Pluto Press Ltd. He has just completed the book, ‘Seeds of Destruction: The geopolitics of Gene-ocide,’ about the political agenda underlying spread of agribusiness and GMO foods worldwide. He can be contacted through his website:





1 Nordland, Rod, Newsweek, Interview with Dr Margaret Chan WHO, Oct. 23, 2005

2 WATT Poultry USA, WATT Poultry USA’s Rankings, January 2003.

3 FAO Fact Sheet : Market Impact of Avian Flu in Asia, Rome, 2004.

4 Cummings, David, Overseas Investments byU.S. Meat Corporations, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, July 2000,

5 Human Rights Watch, Blood, Sweat, and Fear: Workers’ Rights in U.S. Meat and Poultry Plants., January 2005.

6 VivaUSA, Chicken/Broiler Industry Media Briefing,

7 Human Rights Watch, op. cit.

8 World Health Organization, Bird droppings prime origin of bird flu , January 17, 2004.

9 Sontag, Dr Walter, Der Fluch der Vögel, in Wiener Zeitung.8 World Health Organization, Bird droppings prime origin of bird flu , January 17, 2004.

9 Sontag, Dr Walter, Der Fluch der Vögel, in Wiener Zeitung.

November 7 , 2003


Court Rules that Tyson is Liable for Failure to Report Dangerous Ammonia Emissions

Owensboro, Kentucky -- A federal court in Kentucky ruled today that food giant Tyson is responsible for pollution at factory farms. The Sierra Club and local residents sued Tyson for failing to report hazardous releases of ammonia from four animal factories under its supervision, located in Webster, McClean, and Hopkins counties. Animal factories are huge chicken production operations that pack tens of thousands of chickens into closed buildings. When people breathe ammonia, the toxic gas can cause respiratory problems, and in some cases can be fatal.

“This decision is a huge victory for Kentuckians,” said Aloma Dew, Conservation Organizer for the Sierra Club.  “Tyson is finally being held accountable for the mess created by its giant animal factories.” 

Under both the Superfund law and Community-Right-to-Know laws, which form the basis of the Sierra Club lawsuit, polluters that emit more than 100 pounds of ammonia per day must report those releases to the federal government and the local community emergency coordinator. The legislation was enacted so that governments and members of the public could learn what hazards they face from potential toxic substance releases.

Tyson had argued that it was not responsible for pollution from its factory farms because the operations are run by people who raise chickens for Tyson under contract. Federal Court Judge Joseph McKinley saw through Tyson’s arguments, ruling that Tyson is “clearly in a position of responsibility and power with respect to each facility . . . and has the capacity to prevent and abate the alleged environmental damage.” 

“This court confirmed that Tyson is not above the law,” explained Sierra Club attorney Barclay Rogers. “Tyson must pay for the problems it causes.”

“Giant, corporate-owned factory farms are polluting our air and water, and are displacing local family farms. Today, the court dealt a blow to corporate agriculture that has crept into Kentucky, threatening the way of life of our family farmers who believe in good-neighbor practices and care about the land and the law,” said Dew.